Purdue Pharma, facing a mountain of litigation linked to the opioid epidemic, filed for bankruptcy in New York this week. The OxyContin manufacturer and its owners, the Sackler family, have offered to pay billions of dollars to cities and counties hit hard by the addiction crisis.
But that's not good enough for critics such as U.S. Rep. Max Rose.
"The Sackler family does not belong in bankruptcy court," Rose, a New York Democrat, told a news conference earlier this week. "They belong in handcuffs and should be charged as the criminal drug dealers that they are. And just like criminal drug dealers, we should take every cent that they have."
Purdue and other drug companies have been forced to pay out hundreds of millions of dollars so far in civil lawsuits, which currently number more than 2,000 across the U.S.
Prosecutors say evidence shows these firms pushed highly addictive opioid pain medication while downplaying the risk of addiction and overdose. They say executives engaged in racketeering and conspiracy, misleading doctors, insurance companies and government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid.
But the legal action has largely remained in the civil sphere, and Rose thinks it's time for prosecutors to start treating drug companies as criminal enterprises for their role in an epidemic that — according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention — claimed nearly 400,000 lives between 1999 and 2017.
State and federal officials have known for more than a decade that drug-makers, distributors and pharmacy chains were playing an outsize role in this epidemic. A review by NPR found dozens of administrative actions where companies were ordered to stop distributing opioids in ways the federal government considered improper.
There have also been settlements against drug firms involving criminal as well as civil charges. But none of those plea deals involved jail time.
Sen. Maggie Hassan, a New Hampshire Democrat, has called for hearings to investigate why the Justice Department hasn't put more of these drug company executives on trial. She's also demanding that the Justice Department give her office a full copy of a 2006 prosecution memo focusing on Purdue, parts of which appeared in The New York Times last year.
Hassan says she believes the document will show that some federal attorneys wanted more serious criminal charges filed against Purdue.
"At the 11th hour, top political appointees at the Department of Justice blocked those indictments and as a result a much weaker set of plea agreements was entered into with these Purdue executives that really amounted to a slap of the wrist," Hassan tells NPR.
In 2007, several Purdue executives pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges and agreed to perform community service.
In a letter sent to Hassan and to Democratic Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island, the Justice Department refused to release information about its decision-making in the case, citing "long-standing policy" against such disclosures.
The department also declined to speak with NPR about possible criminal prosecutions involving Purdue Pharma.
Hassan says that if prosecutors had been more aggressive in charging executives, the opioid epidemic might have been curtailed a decade ago. "The trajectory of this crisis might have been different and we might have saved a lot of lives," she says.
Experts interviewed by NPR offer different explanations for why state and federal prosecutors haven't brought more criminal charges against drug companies and executives.
Former federal prosecutor Michael Canty says criminal cases are just far more difficult to win. "One of the basic tenets of being a prosecutor is that you don't bring a case unless you believe that you can prove a defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt," he said.
But Rick Claypool of the consumer advocacy group Public Citizen thinks there's another reason: Drug companies have large law firms on their side, with well-connected attorneys well-versed in negotiating plea deals.
"When the Justice Department is pursuing cases against the companies, the people on the other side that they're often negotiating with are all too often former federal prosecutors," Claypool says. "Right now, it's the former U.S. attorney for the Southern District of New York, Mary Jo White, who's representing the Sacklers."
In past negotiations with the Justice Department, Purdue Pharma and the Sacklers have also been represented by Rudy Giuliani, himself a former federal prosecutor.
There are signs, however, that the drug industry is now facing more scrutiny by criminal investigators. In May, five executives with Insys Therapeutics were found guilty on racketeering and conspiracy charges. The Justice Department acknowledged that nearly two decades after the opioid epidemic began, this case was the first of its kind.
"Today's convictions mark the first successful prosecution of top pharmaceutical executives for crimes related to the illicit marketing and prescribing of opioids," U.S. Attorney Andrew Lelling said in a statement issued at the time.
"Just as we would street-level drug dealers, we will hold pharmaceutical executives responsible for fueling the opioid epidemic by recklessly and illegally distributing these drugs, especially while conspiring to commit racketeering along the way. "
At least one other criminal case is now in the works. The Justice Department filed opioid-related charges this spring against Rochester Drug Cooperative, one of the country's largest pharmaceutical distributors, accusing two senior executives of conspiracy and fraud.
NPR's Colin Dwyer contributed to this report.
ARI SHAPIRO, HOST:
We want to warn you that some listeners may find this next story disturbing. Today we learn more about a case in Illinois involving the discovery of thousands of fetal remains at the home of a former abortion provider. After Ulrich Klopfer died earlier this month, the remains were discovered in his garage. Authorities in Illinois released more information today. NPR's Sarah McCammon attended a press conference at the Will County sheriff's office outside Chicago and joins us now.
SARAH MCCAMMON, BYLINE: Hi, Ari.
SHAPIRO: What are authorities saying about why these fetal remains might have been at this man's home?
MCCAMMON: Well, there are a lot of questions they still can't answer. But we do know that Dr. Ulrich Klopfer died earlier this month. He was 79. He'd been an abortion provider at three clinics in Indiana and was living in Crete, Ill., about an hour outside Chicago. And that was where authorities say his widow discovered these fetal remains in their garage after he died. They say she let authorities know right away. Here's Will County Sheriff Mike Kelley at a press conference earlier today describing the scene.
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MIKE KELLEY: Over 70 cardboard boxes of various sizes contained these remains. The remains discovered were inside small, sealed plastic bags, which contained formalin, a chemical used to preserve biological material. The boxes that contained the fetal remains were mixed among other boxes containing personal property of Dr. Klopfer.
MCCAMMON: And authorities say the boxes were dated with the years 2000 to 2002, and they believe that's probably accurate. They don't know why Dr. Klopfer did this. And they are, at this point, turning the investigation over to the Indiana attorney general because that is where he worked as an abortion provider.
SHAPIRO: I understand Klopfer lost his medical license in Indiana in 2016. Do you know why?
MCCAMMON: Yeah. According to documents from the medical licensing board in Indiana, officials found a range of issues involving Klopfer and his clinics; among them, insufficient training and licensing of staff. One document also said that Klopfer had performed an abortion on a 10-year-old girl who had been raped and failed to report that crime, so those are just some of the issues that authorities in Indiana may now be looking at as they continue to investigate how the fetal remains got to Klopfer's home and why they were being kept there.
SHAPIRO: You mentioned that the remains were found by his widow. What has she said about this?
MCCAMMON: Well, I spoke to Sherry Klopfer's attorney, Kevin Bolger, earlier today. He said she did not know that these remains were on her property until after her husband died and that she's very distressed. Bolger described Dr. Klopfer as a, quote, "very serious hoarder," said the house was full of boxes and some outbuildings in the garage. And he said Mrs. Klopfer was shocked at the discovery.
KEVIN BOLGER: You imagine losing your husband - leaving you with this dump and then finding out that he's done this. I mean, this is like something out of "The Twilight Zone." And, you know, she's totally freaked out about it.
SHAPIRO: Sarah, a lot of abortion opponents have had very strong reactions to this. Vice President Mike Pence tweeted about it earlier this week. What's been the reaction from people there where you are?
MCCAMMON: Today a few dozen anti-abortion activists held a prayer vigil outside the county coroner's office. They said they want to know more about how this happened and whether anyone who's still alive might be responsible. And they want the remains to receive a burial. I should also mention one of the clinics was in South Bend, Ind. And Mayor Pete Buttigieg, who, of course, is running for the Democratic presidential nomination, has reacted, calling this extremely disturbing.
SHAPIRO: Just briefly, where does the investigation go from here?
MCCAMMON: Well, authorities in Indiana are taking this over. And officials say that if any women were patients of Dr. Klopfer and want to know more about these fetal remains, they should reach out to the Indiana attorney general.
SHAPIRO: That's NPR's Sarah McCammon.
MCCAMMON: Thank you.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC) Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.