For months the Union assault against Fort Sumter had continued almost on a daily basis. However, on Thursday, July 7, 1864 in Charlestown Harbor Confederate forces attacked Union entrenchments on James Island and carried then by the ninth. Northern troops withdrew from James Island and surrounding areas after suffering an estimated 330 casualties. However, the relentless Federal bombardment of Sumter by the Union fleet and from other Union, land based fortifications continued. Union artillery fired 784 rounds at the rubble that was Fort Sumter. Four times Sumter’s flag was shot away, but four times it was replaced by the fort’s defiant defenders. As a fortification, Fort Sumter had been rendered irrelevant long ago; Union forces wanted the capitulation of Sumter for its symbolic value, given that the war had started there.